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英美概况

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    PART ONE Great Britain
    Chapter 1  Land and People
    第一章  英国的国土与人民

    I. Different Names for Britain and its Parts英国的不同名称及其各组成部分

    1.Geographical names: the British Isles, Great Britain and England.地理名称:不列颠群岛,大不列颠和英格兰。

    2.Official name: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.官方正式名称:大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国。

    3.The British Isles are made up of two large islands-Great Britain (the larger one) and Ireland, and hundreds of small ones.不列颠群岛由两个大岛—大不列颠岛(较大的一个)和爱尔兰岛,及成千上万个小岛组成。

    4.Three political divisions on the island of Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales.大不列颠岛上有三个政治区:英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士。
    (1) England is in the southern part of Great Britain. It is the largest, most populous section.英格兰位于大不列颠岛南部,是最大,人口最稠密的地区。
    (2) Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. It has three natural zones (the Highlands in the north; the Central lowlands; the south Uplands) Capital: Edinburgh苏格兰位于大不列颠的北部。它有三大自然区:北部高地,中部低地及南部山陵。首府:爱丁堡。
    (3) Wales is in the west of Great Britain. Capital: Cardiff威尔士位于大不列颠的西部。首府:加的夫
    (4) Northern Ireland is the fourth region of the UK. Capital: Belfast.北爱尔兰是英国第四个区域。首府:贝尔法斯特。

    5.The Commonwealth (of nations) is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain. It was founded in 1931, and has 50 member countries until 1991.英联邦是独立的前英国殖民地组成的自由联合体。它成立于1931年,至1990年止已有50个成员国。


    Chapter 2  The Origins of a Nation (5000BC-1066)
    第二章  英国的起源(公元前5000年—1066年)

    I.Arrival and settlement of the Celts 克尔特人的到来和定居
    Celts were practiced famers. They drained much of marshlands and built houses of wood. They were ironworkers, too. Their languages, the Celts languages, are the basis of the language which is still used by some people in Scotland and Wales. Their religion was Druidism (n.德鲁伊教). 克尔特人是有经验的农民,他们排干沼泽地,用木材建造房屋。他们还打造铁器。苏格兰和威尔士语就是以他们的语言为基础发展而来的。
    1、 The Celts began to arrive Britain about 700 BC.约公元前700年,克尔特人来到不列颠岛。
    2、The Celts came to Britain in three main waves.克尔特人来到不列颠有三次高潮。
    The first wave were the Gaels - came about 600 BC.第一次高潮是约公元前600年盖尔人的来临。
    The second wave were the Brythons - came about 400 BC.第二次高潮是约公元前400年布列吞人的抵达。
    The third wave were the Belgae - came about 150 BC.第三次是约公元前150年比利其人的到达。

    II. Roman Invasion

    III. The Anglo-Saxons (446-871) 盎格鲁—撒克逊人(公元446—871年)
    1. Basis of Modern English race: the Anglo-Saxons.
    盎格鲁—萨克逊时代(奠定了英国的基础)
    In the mid-5th century a new wave of invaders, Jutes, Saxons, and Angles came to Britain. They were three Teutonic tribes.
    ①The Jutes, who fished and farmed in Jutland, came to Britain first. A Jutish chief became the King of Kent in 449.②Then the Saxons, users of the short-sword from northern Germany, established their kingdom in Essex, Sussex and Wessex from the end of the 5th century to the beginning of the 6th century. ③In the second half of the 6th century, the Angles, who also came from northern Germany and were to give their name to the English people, settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria. These seven principal kingdoms of Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria have been given the name of Heptarchy.五世纪中叶,朱特人、撒克逊人和盎格鲁人不断入侵不列颠。这是三支日耳曼(条顿)部落。居住在日德兰半岛(现丹麦南部)上从事打渔农耕的朱特人先抵不列颠。一个朱特人首领于449年当上了国王。后来从德国北部来的使用短剑的撒克逊人在埃撒克斯、苏塞克斯和威塞克斯建立了王国,统治期从五世纪末至六世纪初。六世纪后半叶,同样来自德国北部的盎格鲁人,在东盎格利亚、麦西亚以及诺森伯利来定居,同时把他们的族名加诸在英国人够上。这七个主要王国(肯特、埃塞克斯、苏塞克斯、威塞克斯、东英吉利亚、麦西亚和诺森伯利亚),合称为七王国。

    2.The early Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity. 最早的盎格鲁—撒克逊人改信基督教。
    The Anglo-Saxons brought their own Teutonic religion to Britain. Christianity soon disappeared, except among the Celts of Cornwall, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent St. Augustine, the Prior of St. Andrew’s Monastery in Rome, to England to convert the heathen (异教的) English to Christianity. In 597 St. Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. He was remarkably successful in converting the king and the nobility, but the conversion of the common people was largely due to the missionary activities of the monks in the north.盎格鲁—撒克逊人把日耳曼宗教带到了英国。除了康瓦尔、威尔士、苏格兰和爱尔兰中的克尔特人还信奉基督教外,基督教很快就消失了。公元597,教皇格里高一世把罗马圣安德鲁修道院的院长圣奥古斯丁派遣到英格兰,其使命是使异教徒的英国人皈依基督教。公元579年圣奥古丁成为坎特伯雷大主教。在使国王和贵族皈依基督教方面,奥古斯丁特别成功。但是普通人的皈依很大程度上归功于北方修道们的传教活动。

    3.The Early Anglo-Saxons make the contributions to the English state (formation of the English nation) 早期盎格鲁—撒克逊人为英国做出的贡献。
    The Anglo-Saxons laid the foundations of the English state. Firstly, they ①divided the country into shires (which the Normans later called counties), with shire courts and shire reeves, or sheriffs, responsible for administering law. Secondly, they devised the narrow-strip, three-field ②farming system which continued to the 18th century. Thirdly, they also ③established the manorial system(庄园制). Finally, they ④created the Witan(council or meeting of the wisemen) to advise the king, the basis of the Privy Council which still exists today. 盎格鲁—撒克逊人构筑了英国的国家基础。首先,他们把国家划分为郡,郡法庭和郡法官、或行政司法长官负责执法。其次,他们设计的窄条三区轮作制延用至18世纪。此外,他们还建立了领地制。最后,他们还创立了咨议会(贤人会议),向国王提供建议,这就成为了今天尚存的枢密院的前身。

    IV.Viking and Danish invasions北欧海盗和丹麦人的入侵
    1.The invaders were the Norwegians and the Danes. They attacked various parts of England from the end of the 8th century. They became a serious problem in the 9th century, especially between 835 and 878. They even managed to capture York, an important center of Christianity in 867. By the middle of 9th century, the Viking and the Danes were posing a threat to the Saxon kingdom of Wessex. 入侵者是挪威人和丹麦人,从8世纪末开始,他们不断袭击英格兰的各个地方。9世纪,尤其是公元835-878年间已成为严重问题。他们甚至占领了约克郡,公元867年时的基督教中心。到9世纪中叶,北欧海盗和丹麦人威胁到撒克逊人的威撒克斯王国的安全。

    2.King Alfred (849-899) and his contributions 艾尔弗雷德国王(849-899)和他所做出的贡献
    Alfred was a king of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and reached a friendly agreement with them in 879. The Danes gained control of the north and east, while he ruled the rest. He also converted some leading Danes into Christians.
    He ①founded a strong fleet and is known as “ the father of the British navy”. He ②reorganized the Saxon army, making it more efficient. He ③translated a Latin book into English. He also ④established schools and ⑤formulated a legal system. All this earns him the title “Alfred the Great.”
    阿尔弗雷德是威塞克斯的国王。他打败了丹麦人,并于公元879年与他们达成了友好协议。协议规定丹麦人控制英格兰北部和西部(丹麦法区),而他统治其他地区。他还劝服一些丹麦首领成为基督教徒。
    他因为建立了强大舰队,而以“英国海军之父”闻名于世。他改组了“弗立德”(撒克逊军队),使之更为高效。他将一本拉丁语的书翻译成英语。同时他还建立了学校,并且阐明了法律制度。所有这一切使他当之无愧于“阿尔弗雷德大王”的称号。

    V.The Norman Conquest (1066) 诺曼征服(公元1066年)
    1.Reasons for William’s invasion of England after Edward’s death. 威廉在爱德华死后入侵英国的原因。
    It was said that king Edward had promised the English throne to William, but the Witan chose Harold as king. So William led his army to invade England. In October 1066, during the important battle of Hastings, William defeated Harold and killed him. One Christmas Day, William was crowned king of England, thus beginning the Norman Conquest of England. 据说,爱德华国王曾答应把英格兰王位传给诺曼底公爵威廉,但是贤人会议挑选了哈罗德为国王。公元1066年10月,在哈斯丁斯附近的激烈交锋中,威廉打败了哈罗德军队,同时哈罗德也在此战争中战死。在圣诞节加冕,成为英国国王,从此开始了诺曼征服。

    2.The Norman Conquest and its consequences 诺曼征服及其产生的影响。
    The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps ①the best-known event in English history. William the Conqueror ②confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with ③a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England. ④Relations with the Continent were opened, and the civilization and commerce were extended. ⑤Norman-French culture, language, manners and architecture were introduced. ⑥The Church was brought into closer connection with Rome, and the church courts were separated from the civil courts. 1066年的诺曼征服也许是英国历史上的最著名事件。征服者威廉几乎没收了所有土地,将其分发给他的诺曼追随者。他用强有力的诺曼政府代替了软弱的萨克逊政府。于是,封建制度在英国完全建立。开放了与欧洲大陆的关系,文明和商业得到发展,引进了诺曼—法兰西文化、语言、行为规范和建筑艺术。教会与罗马的联系更为密切,教会法庭与民事法庭分离。

    3.The English is a mixture of nationalities of different origins. The ancestors of many English people were the ancient Angles and Saxons. Some English people are of the Norman-French origin. 英国是一个集不同民族于一体的国家。许多英国人的祖先是古盎格鲁和撒克逊人。而还有一些英国人的是诺曼血统。


    Chapter 3 The Shaping of the Nation (1066-1381)
    第三章  英国的形成(公元1066-1381)

    I. Norman Rule (1066-1381) 诺曼统治(公元1066-1381)
    1. William's Rule (1066-1087)威廉一世的统治(公元1066-1087)
    England's feudalism under the rule of William the Conqueror 在威廉统治下的英国封建制度
    ①Under William, the feudal system in England was completely established. ②According to this system, the King owned all the land personally. ③William gave his barons large estates in England in return for a promise of military service and a proportion of the land's produce. ④These estates were scattered far and wide over the country, so that those who held them could not easily combine to rebel the king. ⑤The barons, who had become William's tenants-in-chief, parceled out land to the lesser nobles, knights and freemen, also in return for goods and services. ⑥At the bottom of the feudal scale were the villeins or serfs. ⑦One peculiar feature of the feudal system of England was that all landowners must take the oath of allegiance, not only to their immediate lord, but also to the king. ①在威廉统治下,英国的封建制度得到完全确立。②根据此制度,国王拥有全国所有土地。③威廉把英国的大片土地分给贵族,条件是换取对方服役和物品。④这些地产分散于各处,相距遥远,这样土地拥有者就不易联合起来反叛国王。⑤已成为国王总佃户的贵族又把土地分配给小贵族、骑士和自由民,同样换取货物和服役。⑥处于封建等级最底层的是农奴。⑦英国封建制独有的特色就是,无论是土地承租人还是二佃户,都必须要宣誓效忠于直接地主,而且要效忠于国王。

    II.Contents and the significance of the Great Charter《大宪章》的内容及意义
    Great Charter was signed by King John in 1215 under the press of the barons. It consists of sixty-three clauses. Its important provisions are as follows: (1) no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; (2) no freemen should be arrested, imprisoned or deprived of their property; (3) the Church should possess all its rights, together with freedom of elections; (4) London and other towns should retain their traditional rights and privileges, and (5) there should be the same weights and measures throughout the country. (significance) Although The Great Charter has long been popularly regarded as the ① foundation of English liberties, it was a ②statement of the feudal and legal relationships between the Crown and the barons, ③a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a ④limitation of the powers of the king. The spirit of the Great Charter was the limitation of the powers of the king, keeping them within the bounds of the feudal law of the land. 《大宪章》是约翰国王1215年在封建贵族压力下签定的。《大宪章》总共63条,其中最重要的内容是:(1) 未经大议会同意,不得征税;(2) 只有根据国家有关法律才能逮捕、监禁自由人以及剥夺他们的财产;(3)教会应享受其所有权利且有选举自由;(4) 伦敦和其它城镇应保留其贵族的传统权力和特权;(5) 全国要统一度量衡。尽管人们普遍认为《大宪章》为英国的自由奠定了基础,但该宪章只是规定国王和贵族之间封建关系和法律关系的声明书,保证了教会的自由,限制了国王权利。《大宪章》的精神实质就是把国王的权利限制在英国封建法律允许的范围之内。

    III. The origins of the English Parliament 英国议会的起源
    The Great Council is known to be the prototype (原型) of the current British Parliament. In 1265, Simon de Montfort summoned (召集) the Great Council, together with two knights from each county and two citizens from each town. It later developed into the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Its main role was to offer advice, not to make decisions. There were no elections or parties. And the most important part of Parliament was the House of Lords.大议会是当今英国议会的原型。1265年,西门德孟福尔召开大议会,各县有两名骑士,各镇有两名市民参加。大议会发展到后来演变成议会,分为上议院和下议院。其作用是咨询而非决定;也没有选举和政党。议会的最重要的部分是上议院。

    IV.The Hundred Years' War and its consequences. 百年战争及其结果
    The Hundred Years’ War refers to the war between England and France that lasted intermittently from 1337 to 1453. The causes of the war were partly territorial and partly economic. ①The territorial causes were related with the possession by the English kings of the large duchy of  Aquitaine in France, as the French kings grew stronger, they increasingly coveted this large slice. ②The economic causes were connected with cloth manufacturing towns in Flanders, which were the importer of English wool, but they were loyal to the French king politically. Besides, England's desire to ③stop France from giving aid to Scots and ④a growing sense of nationalism were the other causes.
    The English's being driven out of France is ① regarded as a blessing for both countries. If the English had remained in France, the superior size and wealth of France would have ②hindered the development of a separate English national identity, ③ while France was hindered so long as a foreign power occupied so much French territory.
    百年战争指1337年到1453年英法之间一场断断续续的战争,战争的起因既有领土因素又有经济因素。领土起因尤其是英国国王占领了法国的阿基坦大片公爵领地,这是战争的根源,随着法国国王势力日增,他们渴望占领这片土地。经济原因则与弗兰德斯城有关。弗兰德斯地区生产棉布的城镇是英国羊毛的主要进口商,但这些城镇在政治上却效忠法国国王。其他原因还有英国试图阻止法国对苏格兰人的援助,并且压制不断增强的民族意识。
    战争的结果:把英国人赶出法国对两个国家都是幸事:若英国人继续留在法国,那么法国人在领土和财富上所占的优势必然会阻碍独立的英国的发展;而在英国占领大量法国领土的情况下,法国也很难统一。

    Three stages of the war 战争的三个阶段
    In the first two stages, the English won some big victories. But in the third stage, they were driven out of Fance.战争初期,英国取得辉煌胜利。但是最终被逐出法国
    The battle of Argencourt 阿壤科之战
    It took place in 1415 and the English won a crushing victory. After the victory, the English king Henry Ⅴ was recognized as the French King. 1415年英国大获全胜,亨利5世登上法国王位。
    Joan of Arc (1412-1431)贞德女士
    Joan of Arc was a nation heroine in French history. She led and encourages the French in driving the English out of French in the Hundred Years’ War. 贞德是法国历史上的女英雄,她领导和鼓舞法国人民将英国军队驱逐处境。

    Consequences of the war 战争的后果影响
    ①The English lost the war. The expulsion of the English from French is regarded as a blessing for both countries. ②It helped English national identity as well as French national identity. ③Two separate nations were born after the war.

    V. The Black Death 黑死病
    The Black Death is the modern name given to the deadly bubonic plague, an epidemic disease spread by rat fleas across Europe in the 14th century. It swept through England in the summer of 1348. It reduced England's population from four million to two million by the end of the 14th century.
    The economic consequences of the Black Death were far-reaching. As a result of the plague, much land was left untended and there was a terrible shortage of labour. The surviving peasants had better bargaining power and were in a position to change their serfdom into paid labour. Some landlords, unable or unwilling to pay higher wages, tried to force peasants back into serfdom. In 1351 the government issued a Statute of Labourers which made it a crime for peasants to ask for more wages or for their employers to pay more than the rates laid down by the Justices of the Peace.
    黑死病是指由鼠疫蚤传播的致命的淋巴腺鼠疫,是一种流行疾病,在14世纪传播了到欧洲。1348年夏天横扫全英国。英国的人口在14世纪末从400万锐减至200万。
    黑死病对经济造成的后果更为深远。鼠疫导致了大片土地无人照管和劳动力极度匮乏。地主想把耕地变为人力需求较少的牧场。存活的农民处于有利的讨价还价地位,从农奴变为雇佣劳动力。于是一些支付不起或不愿意支付较高工资的地主想方设法迫使农民重返农奴地位。1351年政府颁布“劳工法令”,规定农民们涨工资的要求,或者是雇主支付比地方官制订的工资水平要高的工资都是犯罪。


    Chapter 4  Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1688)
    第四章  向现代英国的过渡

    I. Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1485) 向近代英国的过渡(1455年-1485年)
    The War of Roses 玫瑰战争
    The nature and consequences of the War of the Roses.
    The name War of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put the country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened. 玫瑰战争是指,从1455年到1485年,以红玫瑰为象征的兰开斯特大家族和以白玫瑰为象征的约克家族之间战争的普遍接受的名称。1485年,兰开斯特家族的后代亨利都铎取得了博斯沃恩战役的胜利,建立了都铎王朝。这些战争使英国的封建主义受到致命打击,贵族阶层受到了削弱。

    II. Henry VIII and The English Reformation 亨利八世和英国的宗教改革
    Henry VIII was above all responsible for the religious reform of the church. There were three main causes: a desire for change and reform in the church had been growing for many years and now, encouraged by the success of Martin Luther, many people believed its time had come; the privilege and wealth of the clergy were resented; and Henry needed money.亨利八世最重要的改革是负责进行教会的宗教改革。改革原因有三个主要方面:多年来,人们改革教会的意愿不断增长,现在又受马丁路德成功的鼓舞,许多人认为时机已到;教职人员的特权和财富已引起民愤;亨利需要钱。
    The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and ended in freedom from the Papacy. Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon but the Pope refused. Henry’s reform was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and to make an independent Church of England. He made this break with Rome gradually between 1529 and 1534. He dissolved all of England’s monasteries and nunneries because they were more loyal to the Pope than to their English kings. The laws such as the Act of succession of 1534 and the Act of Supremacy of 1535 made his reform possible. He established the church of England as the national church of the country, and he made himself the supreme head of the church of England.
    改革以争取离婚而开始,以脱离教皇而告终。亨利八世欲与阿拉贡的凯瑟琳离婚,但是教皇拒绝了。亨利改革的目的是摆脱英国教会与教皇的联系,成立独立的英格兰教会。1529年至1534年间逐渐地与罗马脱离了关系。他解散了所有英国的修道院和修女院,因为后者对教皇比对英国国王更忠诚。1534年的《继位法》和1535年的《王权法案》使改革具有了可行性。1535年他获“英格兰教会最高首脑”之称号。
    Henry VIII’s reform stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position; Parliament had never done such a long and important piece of work before, its importance grew as a result. His attack on the Pope’s power encouraged many critics of abuses of the Catholic Church. England was moving away from Catholicism towards protestant ideology.
    改革的三大影响:亨利的改革强调了君主权力,自然巩固了亨利的地位;议会以往从未做过如此漫长而重要的工作,自然其重要性也有所加强;他对教皇权力的打击鼓舞许多人批评指责天主教会,并希望从天主教转向新教。

    III. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 伊莉莎白一世(1558年-1603年)
    Elizabeth I and parliament
    (1)Elizabeth I was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. She was able to work with Paliament. She avoided troubling Parliament too often for pounds by making strict economies at Court. But the relationship was often turbulent. Because Parliament demanded that its right of free speech be confirmed in writing and it be allowed to discuss all important questions at will. Elizabeth I did not agree to their demands. 为了避免经常向议会索要资金,伊莉莎白在王室内部制定了严格的节约制度。但是,她与议会的关系也经常不稳定。因为议会需要用文字形式对言论自由的一般权力加以确定,同时希望可以随时对重要问题进行讨论。伊不同意他们的要求。

    Elizabeth's religious reform and her foreign policy 伊莉莎白的宗教改革和外交政策
    Elizabeth's religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary's ties with Rome and restored her father's independent Church of England, i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. Her religious settlement was unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics.
    For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. Through her marriage alliances which were never materialized, Elizabeth managed to maintain a friendly relationship with France. So England was able to face the danger from Spain.
    伊莉莎白的宗教改革是对不同观点的妥协。她中断玛丽与罗马的关系,恢复她父亲在位时独立的英格兰教会,也就是说保持天主教教条及习俗,但不受教皇控制。她的宗教定论既不被以清教徒知名的新教极端分子所接受,也不为虔诚的天主教徒所接受。
    近30年的时间,伊莉莎白成功挑起了两大天主教强国法国和西班牙互相斗杀,从而免于英国卷入任何主要的欧洲国的冲突。通过她从未具体化的联姻,伊莉莎白设法与法国维持友好关系,因此英国能面对来自西班牙的危险。

    IV. The English Renaissance 英国文艺复兴
    Distinctive features of the English Renaissance 英国文艺复兴的特点
    1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics;
    2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe;
    3) Owing to the great genius of the 14th century poet Chaucer, the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating for foreign influences without being subjected by them;
    4) English Renaissance literature is primarily artistic, rather than philosophical and scholarly;  
    5) the Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England.
    英国文艺复兴的五个特点:1)英国文化的复兴直接受古典作品影响不大,更大的影响来自于受古典作品熏陶的当代欧洲人;2)由于英国是一个岛国家,其社会和政治历史进程与欧洲其他国家相去甚远;3)由于14世纪伟大的天才诗人乔叟的出现,英国本国文学得以蓬勃发展,能够在吸收外国文学影响的同时,并未处于从属地位;4)英国文艺复兴文学主要是文艺方面而不是哲学的和学术方面;5)文艺复兴和英格兰的宗教改革正好同步。

    VI. The Civil Wars and their consequences
    Because of the absolute rule of Charles, the confrontation between Charles I and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22, 1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death.
    The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as a conflict between the parliament and the King, and a conflict between economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle classes coincided with their religious (Puritan) ideology while the Crown’s traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.
    由于查尔斯的“君权神授”统治权,他与议会的对质发展成了内战。战争开始于1642年8月22日,结束于1651年。最后查尔斯被处死。
    英国内战又称为清教徒革命。这是议会和国王间的冲突,也是城市中产阶级的经济利益与皇室传统经济利益之间的冲突。城市中产阶级经济利益刚好与他们的宗教(清教)思想吻合,相应地,皇室传统的经济利益则与圣公会教的宗教信仰相结合在一起。英国内战不仅推翻了英国的封建制度,而且动摇了欧洲的封建基础。英国内战通常被看作是现代世界史的开端。

    The Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell (p.57)
    Cromwell was leader of the first civil war against Charles I. His famous “Ironside” cavalry and New Model Army (新模范军) defeated the king. After the War he was made Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and he instituted direct military rule of the country.
    After king Charles I’s exection in 1649, Oliver Cromwell and the “Rump”(残余国会)declared England a Commonwealth.There was no king, no House of Lords in England. The Commonwealth ended in 1660 when Charles II became king.
    克伦威尔领导了第一次对抗查理1世内战。他著名的铁骑军和新模范军击败了国王。战后同时他成为英伦之岛共和国的护国公,建立直接军队领导制度。当查里一世1649年被处决后,克伦威尔和他的残余国会宣布英格兰为共和国。没有国王和上议院。共和国于1660年查里2世登基结束。

    The Restoration 王政复辟--1660
    When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell's generals George Monck, occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 and resolved the crisis by asking the late King's son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration. 1658年奥利弗克伦威尔去世,他的儿子理查德继任护国公,政权立即开始瓦解。克伦威尔的一位将军乔治蒙克占领伦敦,安排新的议会选举。1660年选出的议会要求上一任国王的儿子长期流亡地法国回国作国王查尔斯二世,从而解决了危机。这就是所谓的王政复辟。

    The Glorious Revolution of 1688  1688年光荣革命
    In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious views. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution. 1685年查尔斯二世去世,由其弟詹姆斯二世继位。詹姆斯二世从小在欧洲流亡长大,是个天主教徒,他希望不放弃个人宗教信仰统治国家。但是1688的英国已不象40年前那样能容忍天主教徒当国王了。英国政客反对詹姆斯二世,他们呼吁信奉新教的国王,奥兰治亲王威谦入侵英国夺取王位。1688年11月15日威廉在托尔比登陆并占领伦敦。这一占领相对平静,既未流血也未处死国王,所以就称为“光荣革命”。


    Chapter 5 The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (1688-1990)
    第五章 大英帝国的兴衰

    I. Whigs and Tories 辉格党人和托利党人
    These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution (1688). 这两个政党名称皆起源于1688年的光荣革命。
    The Whigs were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig were to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party. 辉格党人是指那些反对绝对王权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人。辉格党人在19世纪中叶与持不同意见的托利党人组成联盟,建立自由党。
    The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party. 托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权、不愿去除国王的人。托利党是保守党的前身。

    II. Agricultural Changes in the Late 18th Century 18世纪末的农业革命
    During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the “open-field” system ended when the Enclosure Act was passed. The movement lasted for centuries. Agricultural enclosure had good as well as bad results: 18世纪末、19世纪初的农业革命期间,随着《圈地法》的颁布,传统的“开放田地”制结束。圈地运动持续了将近一个多世纪。农业圈地运动的利弊共存:
    (1) Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small; 由于大农场兼并了小农场,规模越来越大;
    (2) More vegetables, more milk and more dairy produce were consumed, and diet became more varied; 人们消费的蔬菜,牛奶及奶制品越来越多,饮食种类愈加丰富;
    (3) Enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. These peasant farmers were forced to look for work in towns. Enclosure led to mass emigration, particularly to the New World; 圈地对佃家而言是场灾难,他们被赶出土地,被迫到城镇找工作。圈地运动导致了大规模的移民,尤其是移民至新大陆。
    (4) A new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships. 农村关系中产生了新的阶级对立。

    III. The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830)工业革命(1780-1830)
    1.The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanisation of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. 工业革命指的是17世纪末、18世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。
    2.Britain was the first country to industrialize because of the following factors: 英国成为第一个工业化的国家,原因如下:
    (1) Favourable geopraphical location. Britain was well placed geographically to participate in European and world trade; 优越的地理位置:英国地理位置优越,适合参与欧洲与世界贸易;
    (2) Political stability. Britain had a peaceful society, which, after the 17th century, was increasingly interested in overseas trade and colonies. International trade brought wealth to merchants and city bankers. They and those who had done well out of new farming methods provided capital in large quantities for industralization. 政治局面稳定。17世纪后的英国社会宁静,对海外贸易和殖民地兴趣日增。国际贸易给商人和城市银行家带来财富,他们加上由于新农作法而发家的人们为工业化提供了大笔资金。
    (3) The limited monarchy which resulted from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ensured that the powerful economic interests in the community that could exert their influence over Government policy. 1688年光荣革命限制了君主的权力,这使得强大的经济利益集团能对政府政策施加影响。
    (4) It was a country in which the main towns were never too far from seaports, or from rivers, which could distribute their products. 英国的主要城镇皆靠近海港或河流,货物运送便利。
    (5) Britain had many rivers, which were useful for transport but also for water and steam power. Britain also had useful mineral resources. 英国许多河流不仅用于交通,还提供水力及蒸汽动力。英国还有可用的矿产资源。
    (6) British engineers had sound training as craftsmen. 英国工程师为训练有素的手工艺人。
    (7) The inventors were respected. They solved practical problems. 发明家受人尊重,他们解决了实际难题。
    (8) Probably laissez faire and “Protestant work ethic” helped. 自由贸易及“新教工作伦理”可能起到一定作用
    (9) England, Scotland, and Wales formed a customs union after 1707 and this included Ireland after 1807. So the national market was not hindered by internal customs barriers. 1707年后,英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士形成海关协会,1807年后爱尔兰加入。因此,全国市场不再受制于国内海关的约束。
    (10) The enclosures and other improvements in agriculture made their contributions by providing food for the rising population, labour for the factories, and some of the raw materials needed by industry. 圈地运动和其它农业改良为增加的人口提供了粮食,为工厂提供了劳动力,为工业提供了所需的一些原材料。

    3.Typical examples of the inventions during the Industrial Revolution 工业革命中一些重大创新
    (1) John Kay’s flying shuttle in 1733; 1733年,约翰凯的飞梭;
    (2) James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny in 1766; 1766年詹姆士哈格里夫斯詹妮纺纱机;
    (3) Richard Arkwright’s waterframe in 1769; 1769年理查德阿克赖特的水力纺织机;
    (4) Samuel Crompton’s mule in 1779; 1779年塞缪尔克朗普顿的走绽纺纱机;
    (5) Edmund Cartwright’s power loom in 1784; 1784年爱德蒙卡特莱特发明的力织机;
    (6) James Watt’s steam engine in 1765. 1765年詹姆斯瓦特的高效蒸汽机。

    4.Consequences of the industrial Revolution 工业革命的结果
    (1) Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”; 使英国在1830年成为了“世界工场”;
    (2) Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation’s wealth. 城镇迅速兴起,成为国家财富的源泉。
    (3) Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it. The working men worked and lived in appalling conditions. 机械化摧毁了无法投入其中的人们的生活。工人们在极其恶劣的条件下劳动与生活。
    (4) The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism. 工业革命产生了工人阶级,即无产阶级。后来形成了工会制度。

    IV. The Chartist Movement (1836-1848) 宪章运动(1836-1848)
    1. Reasons for parliamentary reforms. 议会改革的原因
    (1) Power was monopolized by the aristocrats. 权力被贵族垄断。
    (2) Representation of town and country, and North and South was unfair. 议会中城镇和农村,北方和南方的代表分配极不公平。
    (3) There were also various so-called rotten or pocket boroughs. 还有各种称之为腐败选区或口袋选区。

    2.Three Reform Bills(1832-1884) 三个改革法案
    Between 1832 and 1884 three Reform Bills were passed. 1832年至1884年间通过了三个改革法案。
    a) The Reform Act of 1832 (also called the “Greater Charter of 1832) abolished “rotten boroughs”, and redistributed parliamentary seats more fairly among the growing towns. It also gave the vote to many householders and tenants, based on the value of their property. 1832年的《改革法案》(也称为1832年的大宪章)废除了“腐败选区”;在新兴城镇中较为公平地重新分配了议席;以财产价值为基础赋予许多屋主和佃家选举权。
    b) The New Poor Law of 1834 forced the poor people into work houses instead of giving them sufficient money to survive in their own homes. 1834年的新济贫法强迫穷人进工厂,而没有给他们足够的钱在自己的家里谋生。

    3.A People’s Charter 人民宪章
    There was widespread dissatisfaction with the Reform Act of 1832 and the New Poor Law. In 1836, a group of skilled workers and small shopkeepers formed the London Working Men’s Association. They drew up a charter of political demands (a People’s Charter) in 1838, with the intention of presenting it to Parliament. It had six points: (1)the vote for all adult males; (2)voting by secret ballot; (3)equal electoral districts; (4)abolition of property qualifications for members of Parliament; (5)payment of members of Parliament; (6)annual Parliaments, with a General Election every June. 1832年的《改革法案》和《新济贫法》引起了普遍不满。1836年,一群技术工人和小店主组成伦敦工人协会。他们于1838年起草了有关政治要求的宪章(人民宪章),想把它呈送给议会。宪章有六点内容:(1)所有成年男子都有选举权;(2)进行无记名投票;(3)划分认输相等的选区;(4)废除议员的财产资格要求;(5)议员应有报酬;(6)议会每年六月进行大选。

    4.Results of the Chartist Movement 宪章运动的结果
    Chartism failed because of its weak and divided leadership, and its lack of coordination with trade-union. The working class was still immature, without the leadership of a political party armed with correct revolutionary theory. The Chartist movement was, however, the first nationwide working class movement and drew attention to serious problems. The 6 points were achieved very gradually over the period of 1858-1918, although the sixth has never been practical. Lenin said that Chartism was “the first broad, really mass, politically formed, proletarian revolutionary movement.” 由于领导层的软弱和分歧,由于缺少与工会的协调,宪章运动失败了。当时的工人阶级还未成熟,没有正确的革命理论武装的政党领导。但是,宪章运动是第一次全国范围的工人阶级运动,引起了对许多严重问题的关注。在1858至1918年间,六项要求逐渐达到,尽管第六项从未成为现实。列宁说宪章运动是“第一个广泛的、真正群众参与的,有政治组织形式的无产阶级革命运动。”

    V. Colonial Expansion 殖民地扩张
    1. The growth of dominions 自治领的兴起
    English colonial expansion began with the colonization of Newfoundland in 1583. Encouraged by Britain’s control of the seas, especially by the rising tide of emigration, British colonialists stepped up their expansion to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. By 1900, Britain had built up a big empire, “on which the sun never set”. It consisted of a vast number of protectorates, Crown colonies, spheres of influence, and self-governing dominions. It included 25% of the world’s population and area. 英国殖民扩张开始于1583年纽芬兰的殖民化。在18世纪末、19世纪初,英国在海上的称霸,尤其是移民浪潮的高涨,鼓舞了英国殖民者,加速他们的扩张到加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰。到1900年英国已建立了“日不落”的大英帝国,包括受保护国、英国殖民地、势力范围和自治领,占世界人口与面积的25%。
    Canada was ceded to Britain by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. French rights were guaranteed by the Quebec Act of 1774. The Canada Act of 1791 divided Canada into Upper Canada where the British had settled, and Lower Canada populated by the French. The British North America Act of 1867 established Canada as a dominion. 1763年签订的《巴黎条约》将加拿大割让给英国。1774年的《魁北克法》保证了法国的权益。之后,1791年《加拿大法》把加拿大分为上加拿大和下加拿大,前者是英国人的定居地,后者是法国人的居住点。1867年《英国北美法案》确定加拿大为自治领。
    English began to transport convicts to Australia in 1788. Free settlement began in 1816, and no convicts were sent to Australia after 1840. The gold rushes (1851-1892) brought more people to Australia, and in 1901 the six self-governing were united in one dominion - the independent Commonwealth of Australia. 1788年英国人开始把囚犯流放到澳大利亚。1816年开始可以自由定居,1840年后囚犯不再流放到澳大利亚。1851年至1892年的淘金热使更多的人拥到澳洲。1901年,六个自治领统一为一个自治领—澳大利亚独立联邦。
    New Zealand became a separate colony of Britain in 1841, achieved self-government in 1852, became a dominion under the British crown in 1907 and was made completely independent in 1931. 1841年新西兰成为独立殖民地,1852年实现自治,1907年成为英皇属下的自治领,1931年完全独立。

    2. The Conquest of India 征服印度
    The establishment of British East India Company established in 1600 was a case of economic penetration. By 1819 the British conquest of most India was almost complete. After the muting of Bengal army in 1857, the control of India passed to the British Crown and Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877. 1600年英国东印度公司的建立堪称典型的经济渗透。到1819年英国对印度的征服已基本完成。1857年东印度公司孟加拉军队的当地士兵发动兵变后,1858年印度改由英国君主统治。1877年维多利来女王正式成为印度女皇。

    3. The Scramble for Africa 对非洲的掠夺
    At the beginning of the 19th century British possessions were confined to forts and slave trading posts on the west coast. Over the 19th century the interior of Africa was gradually discovered and colonized by Europeans. Britain led the way in the race. Apart from the colonies in the South and West, Britain was also involved in the North East in Egypt and the Sudan. 19世纪初英国的占领地局限于西海岸的堡垒和奴隶交易点。整个19世纪欧洲人逐渐发现并殖民了非洲内陆。在这场瓜分竞赛中英国占了较大的优势。除了不断扩张的南部和西部殖民地后,英国又凯觎东北的埃及和苏丹。

    4. Aggression against China 侵略中国
    In 1840, the Opium War broke out between Britain and China. Since then, Britain gradually invaded many coastal areas and imposed a series of unequal treaties upon China. 1840年英国对中国发动了鸦片战争。从那时起,英国逐渐侵略了中国的许多沿海城市,并签定了一系列不平等条约。

    VI. Twentieth Century 二十世纪
    1. Britain and the First World War 英国和第一次世界大战
    The Word War I was fought from 1914 to 1918 primarily between two European Power blocs: “the Central power”. Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the “Allies”, Britain, France and Russia. During the war, the Britain lost much. Apart from the loss of manpower, there had been considerable disruption of the economy and society. Out of the war settlement came the establishment of the league of Nations. 第一次世界大战是从1914年至1918年,战争主要在两大欧洲集团间进行:“同盟国”,包括德国和奥匈帝国,和“协约国”,包括英国、法国和俄罗斯。一战中英国损失惨重。除了劳动力损失,还有巨大的经济与社会瓦解。在战后的安定阶段国际联盟成立。

    2. Britain and the Second World War 英国与第二次世界大战
    (The Second World War was fought from 1939 to 1945. Britain declared war on Germany in 1939. German bombing raids destroyed many cities in England. Britain was great impoverished by the war.)
    As Adolf Hitler and Nazism showed off their aggressive momentum in Europe, Chamberlain, the Prime Minister, found his policy of appeasement of German aggression was no longer tenable, and was forced to declare war on Germany on September 3, 1939. 第二次世界大战是从1939年至1945年,当阿道夫希特勒及纳粹主义显示他们对欧洲的侵略意图时,首相张伯伦发现他对德国倾略所采取的绥靖政策已站不住脚,被迫于1939年9月3日对德宣战。

    3. Postwar Britian 战后的英国
    At the general eiection of 1945 Winston Churchill was heavily defeated. The electorate returned a Labour government. The war hastened (加快) the end of Britain’s empire and its former colonies won independence one after another. Brtain joined in several wars against other countries. The 1960s were the Swinging Sixties (摇摆的60年代), the permissive age (宽容的时代). The foundations of the welfare state (福利国家) was laid in these years. In the 1980s, Mrs Thatcher started the privatization policy. Britain joined the European Economic Community in 1973. 温斯顿·邱吉尔在1945年的大选中惨败。全体选民选举了工党政府。战争加快了大英帝国的灭亡,她的殖民地相继独立。英国参与了与其他国家的几个站长。1960年是摇摆的60年代,性解放的年代。在这些年中已发展成为一个福利国家。20世纪80年代,撒切尔开始了她的私有化政策。1973年,英国加入欧共体。

    (1) One of the most far-reaching consequences of the War was that it hastened the end of Britain’s empire. 二战最为深远的结果之一是加速了大英帝国的瓦解。
    (2) In 1952 Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Many people through television saw the ceremony. 1952年伊莉莎白公主加冕成为伊莉莎白女王二世。新发明的电视使许多人看到了加冕仪式的过程。
    (4) In January 1973, Britain became a full member of the European Economic Community which was still called the Common Market in 1973. Britain witnessed the first oil embargo in 1973. 1973年1月,英国终于成为欧洲经济共同体的正式成员国。1973年仍称为共同市场。1973年英国经历了第一次石油禁运。
    (5) Thatcherism 撒切尔主义
    Thatcherism referred to the policies put forward by Margaret Thatcher, the first woman prime minister in England in 1979. The main contents of her policies included the ①return to private ownership of state-owned industries, ②the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, ③the weakening of trade unions & the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and ③an emphasis on law and order. To some extent her program was successful and she led one of the most remarkable periods in the British economy. She resigned in 1990. 1979年玛格丽特.撒切尔成为英国第一任女首相。她提出的政策被为“撒切尔主义”。其内容包括国有工业私有化,采用货币主义政策以控制通货膨胀,削弱工会的影响,加强市场因素在经济中的作用,强调法律和秩序。在一定程度上讲,她的计划是成功的。她领导英国经济度过了一段最繁华的时期之一。1990年她辞职。


    Chapter 6 Government and Administration
    第六章  英国政府机构

    The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is a king or a queen. The United Kingdom is governed, in the name of the Sovereign by His or Her Majesty’s Government. The System of parliamentary government is not based on a written constitution, the British constitution is not set out in any single document. It is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The Judiciary determines common law and interprets statutes. 联合王国是君主立宪制国家,国家的首脑是国王或女王。联合王国以君的名义,由国王或女王陛下政府治理。英国的议会制度并不是基于成文宪法,英国宪法不由单一文件构成,而由成文法,习惯法和惯例组成。司法部门裁定习惯法或解释成文法。

    Constitutional monarchy 君主立宪制
    The British monarchy is known as constitutional monarchy. It means the monarchy’s power is limited by law and Parliament. The monarchy actually has no real power. Constitutional monarchy began after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. 英国的君主体制是以君主立宪闻名的。君主政体实际已无实权。它的权力受限于法律和议会。君主立宪制是从1688年的光荣革命后开始。

    I.The Monarchy 君主制
    1. Elizabeth II, her title in the United Kingdom is “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her Other Realms and Territories, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith. 伊莉莎白二世,她的全称是“伊莉莎白二世承蒙大布列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国以及她的其他领土和领地的上帝之恩典,女王,英联邦元首,共同信仰的保护者。”
    2. The Queen is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, She is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces and the “supreme governor” of the Church of England. She gives Royal Assent to Bills passed by parliament. 女王是国家的象征。从法律上讲,她是行政首脑,立法机构的组成部分,司法首脑,全国武装部队总司令,英国国教“至高无上”的领袖。她任命首相和重要的政府官员。对议会通过的法案给予御准。

    II.Parliament 议会
    1.The United Kingdom is a unitary, not a federal, state. Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. 英国是中央集权国家,而不是联邦制国家。议会由君主,上议院和下议院组成。
    2.The main functions of Parliament are: (1) to pass laws; (2) to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government; (3) to examine government Policy and administrations, including proposal for expenditure; and (4) to debate the major issues of the day. 议会的主要作用是:(1)通过立法;(2)投票批准税为政府工作提供资金;(3)检查政府政策和行政管理,包括拨款提议;(4)当天的议题辩论。

    The House of Lords 上院
    The House of Lords is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and 24 senior bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of 1) all hereditary peers and peeresses of England, Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (but not peers of Ireland); 2) life peers created to assist the House in its judicial duties; 3) all other life peers. The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of law-making. 上院由神职人员和世俗议员组成。神职包括坎特伯雷和约克大主教及24名高级主教。世俗议员包括1)所有英,苏,大不列颠及联合王国的世袭贵族,女贵族(但不包括爱尔兰);2)协助议院司法工作的终身贵族;3)其他终身贵族。上院的主要作用就是集中议员集体经验智慧制定法律。

    The House of Commons 下院
    The House of Commons is elected by universal adult suffrage and consists of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs). It is in the House of Commons that the ultimate authority for law-making resides. 下院议员由成人普选产生,共有651名议员。最高立法权掌握在下院手中。

    1)Parliamentary Electoral System 议会选举制
    A General Election must be held every five years and is often held at more frequent intervals. British citizens, together with citizens of other Commonwealth countries and citizens of the Irish Republic resident in Britain, may vote provided they are 1)aged 18 or over, 2)included in the annual register of electors for the constituency, and 3)not subject to any disqualification. A candidate must deposit 500 pound. 大选每5年一次,且经常不足5年就举行。英国公民包括其他英联邦国家公民和爱尔兰共和国在英国的居民都有选举权。选举条件1)18或18以上,2)选区全体选民的每年选民登记册上登记注册者 3)有资格参选者。候选人必须交纳500英镑保证金。
    2)The Political Party System 政党体制
    Since 1945 either the Conservative Party or the Labour Party has held power. 自1945年以来,一直由保守党或工党轮流执政。

    Chapter 7 Social Affairs
    第七章 英国社会

    I. Religion 宗教
    1. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom without interference from the community or the State. (He may believe in any church or none at all.) He may change his religion at will & may manifest his faith in teaching, worship and observance. Except that the Lord Chancellor may not be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churches or none. 在英国,人人都有信仰宗教的权利,社会和政府不得干涉。他可以随意改变宗教信仰,可以在布道,礼拜和仪式中表明他的信仰。除了大法官不可以是罗马天主教徒外,公共职务对各种信仰或没有信仰的人一律公开。

    2. Established churches国教
    There are two established churches in Britain: in England the church of England and in Scotland the  Church of Scotland (Presbyterian). 英国有两大国教,在英格兰是英格兰国教,苏格兰是苏格兰教会(长老教)。

    3. Church of England is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and as “Defender of the Faith”. The Church is also linked with the State through the House of loads. The church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer without the consent of Parliament. 英格兰国教与君主有独特的联系。因为君主作为“国教的捍卫者”必须是此教会的一员,他在登基时必须承诺维持国教。国教还通过上议院与国家联系起来。没有议会同意,英格兰教会不可随意改变“国教祈祷书”中规定的礼拜仪式。

    4. The government of the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, that is, government by ministers and elders, all of whom are ordained to office. The Monarch is normally represented at the general assembly by the Lord High Commissioner. 苏格兰教的管理时长老制,也就是由教士和长老治理。他们被授予圣职,王室高级代表通常代表君主光临会议。

    5. Unestablished churches 非国教教会
    There are: the Anglican Churches(圣公会),the Free Churches(自由教会);(the largest of the Free Churches – the Methodist Church 最大的自由教会—卫理公会),the Roman Catholic Church(罗马天主教)。

    II. Festival and Public Holidays 节假日
    1.Christian festivals 基督教节日
    The Christian festival of the year are Christmas, Easter, and Whit Sunday. 其主要的节日有圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节
    Christmas day, December  25th, celebrates the birth of Christ, and it is the greatest of Christian festivals. Easter celebrates the Resurrection (复活) of Christ. Easter is traditionally associated with the eating Easter eggs.Whit Sunday (圣灵节) celebrates the coming of the Holy Spirit to Christ’s apostles seven days after his death, and it is on the seventh Sunday after Easter.圣诞节,12.25,纪念耶稣的诞生,是最盛大的基督教节日。复活节是庆祝基督的复活。复活节有吃复活节彩蛋的习惯。圣灵节是庆祝基督去世7周后,重新降临到他的使徒们中间,在复活节后第7个周日。

    2.Other festivals 其他节日
    Britain’s other festivals include New Year’s Day, Gy Fawkes Day (篝火节), April Fools Day(愚人节), Mother’s Day and the Remembrance Day (Armistice Day)


    Chapter 8 The education system in Britain

    I. The education system in Britain
    1. primary education 初等教育,小学教育
    Primary education is compulsory (义务教育) in Britain. It begins at five in Great Britain and four in Northern Ireland. All children have to attend primary school and they finish their primary education at the age of 11. In addition to the many state primary schools (公立小学) which do not ask their pupils to pay fees, there are also some fee-paying independent primary schools (收费的私立小学). The most famous fee-paying primary schools are the preparatory schools which admit children from seven-plus to 11, 12 or 13 years old. 初等教育在英国是义务教育,大不列颠是从5岁开始,北爱尔兰是4岁。所有的孩子必须参加初等教育,并在11岁完成。除了许多国家公立小学不向学生收费外,也有一些收费的私立小学。预备学校学生的年龄通常为7岁以上到11、12、13岁。

    2. secondary education 中等教育,中学教育
    Secondary education in Britain is also compulsory. All the children must receive secondary education after finishing their primary education at the age of eleven. The secondary school age-range (中学生的年龄段) is from 11-18. About 90% of the state secondary school population in Great Britain attend comprehensive schools. Secondary schools include comprehensive schools (综合中学), secondary modern schools (现代中学) and grammar schools(文法学校). They are state schools(公立学校)。中等教育在英国也是必须的,所有孩子必须在11岁完成初等教育后接受中等教育。中学生的年龄段从11-18。大不列颠90%左右的国属中等学校学生就读于综合中学。

    3. higher education 高等教育,大学教育
    There are some 90 universities, including the Open University. Most famous ones are Oxford and Cambridge. There is also the Open University which is “open” to all to become students, mainly adult students.  包括开放大学在内,英国共有90所大学。最著名的是牛津和剑桥。还有开放大学,即向所有未来的学生和成人开放。

    II. The Media
    Paper 报纸
    British newspapers can be divided into three kinds: quality newspapers (高质量严肃报纸), popular newspapers (通俗报纸), and mid-market newspapers (中间市场报)
    1.Quality newspapers are directed at readers who want full information on a wide range of public matters. There are 5 quality dailies (Financial Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Independent, and The Times) and 4 quality Sundays (Sunday Telegraph, The Independent on Sunday, The Observer, and The Sunday Times). 严肃报纸面向那些想全面了解社会事物各方面信息的读者。共有5家严肃日报(《金融时报》、《每日电讯报》、《卫报》、《独立报》、《泰晤士报》)和4家严肃周日报(《星期日电讯报》、《星期日独立报》、《观察家》、《星期日泰晤士报》)
    2.Populary newspapers appeal to people wanting news of a more entertaining character, presented more concisely. There are 3 popular dailies (Daily Mirror, Daily Star and The Sun) and 3 popular Sundays (News of the world, Sunday Mirror, and The people). 通俗报纸吸引那些需要娱乐性较强而又简单明了的新闻的人们。共有3家通俗日报(《每日镜报》、《晨星报》、《太阳报》)和3家通俗周日报(《世界新闻报》、《星期日镜报》、《人民报》)

    The BBC(the British Broadcasting Corporation英国广播公司) and its programs
    BBC is the largest and dominant broadcasting corporation in Britain. BBC World Service broadcasts international news worldwide in 38 other languages. The BBC is state-run(国营)and it is financed from the sales of television licences (出售电视收视证). BBC Network Radio serves(广播网)an audience of 30 million a week in Britain, broadcasting around 38,000 hours of programmes each year on its 5 networks. BBC是英国最大的和独立的广播公司。BBC国际广播电台用英语和其他38种语言播放全球范围的国际新闻。国营的BBC的资金来源于收视许可证的销售。BBC广播网在英国每周就有3千万听众,每年在5个广播网上播送节目约38000个小时。.

    III. Sports 体育运动
    1. Many international sports were introduced by the British who take their leisure time very seriously. There is widespread participation in sport in Britain. 英国人很重视休闲时光,许多国际体育项目是由他们推广开来的,在英国,人们广泛参与体育活动。
    2. Football ( or “soccer” as it is colloquially called ), the most popular sport in England as well as in Europe, has its traditional home in England where it was developed in the 19th century. 足球(口语叫”soccer”),在英格兰和欧洲是最受欢迎的运动,其传统老家在英格兰,在19世纪得到发展。
    3. The game “Rugby” was invented at Rugby School in Warwich shire in the early 19th century. 英式橄榄球(又称拉格比足球)于19世纪初发明于沃尔威克郡的拉格比学校,因此而得名。
    4. Cricket, the most typically English of sports, has been in existence since the 16th century. On an international level, 5-day Cornhill Test Matches. 板球,是英国人最典型的体育运动,自从16世纪以来已存在。国际比赛是为期5天的康希尔决赛。
    5. Although tennis has been played for centuries, the modern game originated in England in late 19th. The main tournament is the annual Wimbledon fortnight, one of the 4 tennis “Grand Slam” tournaments. 尽管网球已打了好几个世纪,但现代比赛却起源于19世纪末的英格兰。主要比赛是一年一度的温布尔登两周赛,这是四大满贯网球锦标赛之一。
    6. There is a considerable following and participation of athletics in Britain. For example, the London Marathon, which takes place every spring. 英国参加田径的人很多,例如伦敦的马拉松塞,每年春季举行。
    7. The home of golf is Scotland where the game has been played since the 17th century and naturally the oldest golf club in the world is there: the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers. The most important national event is the Open Championship with the Walker Cup for amateurs and the Ryder Cup for professionals. 高尔夫球的故里是苏格兰,自从17世纪以来这项运动就在那儿盛行。全世界最古老的高尔夫俱乐部也在那里:爱丁堡高尔夫球会员荣誉公司。全国最大的比赛是沃尔克杯业余公开赛和雷德尔杯职业公开赛。

    IV. Major forms of art in Britain
    1) museums and galleries - The largest and most important is the British Museum最大和最重要的是英国博物馆
    2) music - People in Britain are interested in a wide range of music, including classical music (古典音乐), rock and pop misic, Jazz , folk and Light Mucic. In the early 1960s a new pop culture — beat(披头士), emerged in Britain’s Liverpool. It was started by a group of young people called Beatles. 英国人喜欢各种各样的音乐,包括古典音乐,摇滚和流行音乐,爵士乐,民间音乐和轻音乐。20世纪60年代,一种新的流行文化—披头士,出现在英国的利物浦。这是由一群年轻人组成的乐队叫披头士乐队,又称甲壳虫乐队。
    2)  Drama - Britain is one of the world’s major centres for theatre, and its dramatic tradition is reflected in the excellent quality and range of its theatre. 英国是世界上最主要的剧院中心,其戏剧传统从其剧院的质量及范围即可看出。

    Arts festivals 艺术节 - The most famous is the Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama. It takes place for a period of 3 to 4 weeks between August and September.最著名的是爱丁堡国际音乐戏剧节。该节在八、九月间举行,历时3-4周。

    films 电影 - In November each year the National Film Theatre hosts the London Film Festival. 每年11月国家电影院主办伦敦电影节。

    Literature and libraries 文学和图书馆 - There are several thousand libraries throughout the country, including the great “copyright” libraries, which are entitled to receive a free copy of every book published in the United Kingdom; and libraries of other universities and learned institutions and the Public libraries. 全国有几千所的图书馆,包括‘版权所有’大图书馆。这些图书馆有权免费得到在英国出版的每一本书的样本,此外还有其他大学、研究所的图书馆和公共图书馆。


    PART TWO The United States of American

    Chapter I The American History I  

    1. Population, race and ethnic groups 人口和种族
    1) introduction 概要
    ①the third most populous country in the world, with 255.5 million people.
    ②a nation of immigrants. Immigration accounts for a major source of population growth. There are many racial and ethnic groups. Between 80% and 90% of immigration ot the United States now is from Asian and Hispanic countries. The first immigrants in American history came from England and Netherlands. Population movements are common in America. 移民是人口增长的一个主要原因。到目前80%-90%的移民来自亚洲和西班牙语国家。美国历史上最早的移民来自于英格兰和荷兰。人口迁徙在美国很普遍。

    2) Black people and the Civil Rights Movement
    ①blacks and slavery - the largest of the racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S., which accounts for 12.1 percent of the population; the first blacks were brought to North America as slaves in 1619. 美国最大的少数人种是黑人,占人口的12。1%;1619年最早的人人作为奴隶被运至美国。
    ②The slave system was formally ended by Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and the Thirteenth Amendment to the Consititution in 1865. The Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s demanded desegregation and equal right. 1863年林肯总统的《解放宣言》和1865年的《宪法第13修正案》使奴隶制度正式瓦解。废除种族隔离和人权平等导致了1960年的民权运动。


    2. American History I
    1) The  “discovery” of the New World 发现新大陆
    ①The “first Americans” were the Indians 最早的美国人是印第安人
    ②In the late 15th century, Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, supported by the Spanish queen, he led his men to sail across the vast ocean in 1492 and reached some small islands in the now west Indies. He thought he had reached Asia and didn’t know he had disvovered a New Continent. 15世纪后期,意大利航海家克里斯多弗.哥伦布,在西班牙女王的支持下,于1492年率领船队穿越浩瀚的大西洋,抵达了现在西印度群岛的一些小岛。他误以为到达了亚洲,并不知道自己已经发现了一个新大陆。
    ③Ameriga Vespucci proved that the land was a new continent. Therefore, the land was named America after him. 阿美利歌●韦斯普奇证明了这是新大陆,因此,以他的名字命名。

    2) Causes of the colonization of the New World
    Opportunity was a magic word. ①The New World drew English nobles (who dreamed of getting more land and establishing great new estates). ②Drew other people who could not find jobs in England. ③Most of all , it drew the poor and the homeless from the farmlands and villages of Europe. ④Many settlers came to the English colonies in search of religious freedom because they had been persecuted in England. 机遇是一个神气的词。1)他吸引了英国的贵族(那些梦想在荒原上创建庞大的新地产的)2)吸引那些在英国无法找到工作的人。3)尤其是吸引了欧洲农场和乡村的穷人和无家可归的人。4)许多人为寻求宗教自由而在这英国殖民地定居下来,因为他们在英国受到早叫迫害。

    3) The first English colony in America was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Between1607 and 1733 the British established 13 colonies along the east coast of North America. They were Virginia, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Georlina. 美洲的第一块英国殖民地于1607年在弗吉尼亚的詹姆斯建立。从1607年到1733年间,英国在北美的东海岸建立了13个殖民地。它们是弗吉尼亚、缅因、新罕布什尔、马塞、康涅狄格、纽约、罗得岛、马里兰、北卡罗来纳,南卡罗来纳、新泽西、宾夕法尼亚和佐治亚。
    In 1620, 201 Pilgrims sailed to the New World in a ship called Mayflower.They arrived at Plymouth and built the Plymouth colony.The Puritans(清教徒), unlike the Pilgrims (清教徒前辈) who were artisans and peasants, were wealthy, well-educated gentlemen. The Puritans did not allow religious dissent. The colonists were building a new way of life in the New World. There were a number of features which would play a role in forming the American character. They were: representative form of government, rule of law, respect of individual rights, religious tolerance and a strong sense of individual enterprise.1620年,清教徒前辈中的201人乘坐“5月花号”船来到新大陆,在普利茅斯建立了殖民地。清教徒和身为手艺人或农夫的清教徒前辈不同,他们富有,是受过良好教育的绅士。清教徒不允许异教存在。殖民者在新大陆建立了一种新的生活方式。以下几点为美国特色的形成起到一定作用:政府的代表形式,法制,对人权的尊重,宗教的宽容和强大个人进取精神。

    4)The American War of Independence and its consequences 美国独立战争极其影响
    ①the causes: With the development of economy, the people in the colonies wanted more power to determine their own business. But the policy of the British government was to bring the development under control and collect more taxes from the colonies.原因:随着经济的发展,殖民地人民要求更多的自决权。而英国政府的政策是要把经济发展控于股掌,并向殖民地征收更多的税
    ②the Boston Tea Party (波士顿茶叶事件): In 1773, several dozen Boston residents dressed as Indians boarded the ships of the British East India Company and threw the tea into the harbor. 1773年,几十名波士顿居民化装成印第安人,登上英国东印度公司的船,将茶叶倾入海中。
    ③the First continental Congress: In September 1774, the First Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia which encouraged Americans to refuse to buy British goods. 第一届大陆会议:1774年9月,在费城召开,鼓励美国人抵制英货。
    ④Lexington and Concord (列克星顿和康克特):The War of Independence began there in 1775.
    ⑤The Second Continental Congress (three weeks after the battle at Lexington in 1775 ): founded a  Continental Army and Navy under the command of Washington; appointed a committee to draft a formal declaration (Thomas Jefferson was the man who draft it), the Declaration of Independence, and adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. 第二次大陆会议(1775年的列克星顿战役三周之后):建立了大陆军和海军,任命华盛顿为总司令;指定了一个委员会负责起草一份正式宣言(托马斯。杰斐逊起草),1776.6.4,通过了独立宣言。
    ⑥The Declaration is a clear explanation of the political theory behind the revolution and this theory came from the British philosopher John Locke. 宣言清晰地解释了指导这场革命的政治理论,这一理论源于英国哲学家约翰●洛克。
    ⑦The consequences: In September, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Britain recognized the independence of the United States; the war was from 1775 to 1781; it shows that, in a just war, a weak nation can defeat a strong one. American people gained independence and capitalism developed in America. It also had great international influence. 意义:1783年9月,《巴黎条约》签署,英国承认美国独立;战争从1775-1781,表明,在一场正义的战争中,弱者可以战胜强者。美国人民获得了独立,资本主义得到发展。同时具有深远的国际影响。

    5) Establishment of a federal form of goverment 联邦政府的建立
    ①The Articles of Confederation was unusual in many ways: 1)it provided for no king; 2)while the Articles created a central government in the form of a Congress, the emphasis was still on state powers. 3)the Articles of Confederation was a written constitution for the U.S.. But there were serious weaknesses - it was difficult to carry on the business of the government without someone to do the executive’s job. Congress was too large a body to function as government. And Congress had no power to raise taxes. A conference was held in Philadelphia in May 1787 to consider what should be done to make the Articles of Confederation adequate. 十三洲联邦宪法的不同之处在于:1)没有采用君主立宪制;2)确立了国会形式的中央政府,但仍以洲治为主;3)是美国的明文宪法。但也存在严重缺陷:无人主持行政工作,政府事务很难执行。国会体制庞大,无法起到政府职能,国会无权提高税收。1787年5月于费城召开了一次大会,讨论如何改进十三洲联邦宪法。
    ②The Great Compromise (on July 16,1787): gave each state an equal vote in the Senate but making representation in the House reflect the size of each state’s population. 1787.7.16出台的大折中:赋予各州在参议院中同样的选举权,而众议院中的代表人数则根据各州的人口决定。
    ③The Bill of Rights (1791), became the first ten amendments to the constitution of the American constitutional. By then, it is agreed, the foundation of the American constitutional system was completed. 1791年通过的,成为对《宪法》最早的十项修正案—人权法案。一般认为至此美国宪法体制的建立全部完成。
    ④the first Congress: met in New York in 1789.
        the first President: Washington

    6) Consequences of territorial expansion and the westward Movement 领土扩张和西进运动
    ①forced England to give up the Old Northwest; 迫使英格兰放弃旧西北地区
    ②Purchased the Louisiana from Nepoleon. (1790’s) 向拿破伦购买路易斯安那州
    ③forced Spain to cede Florida and the Gulf coast. 迫使西班牙放弃弗罗里达和墨西哥海岸。
    ④Texas added to the Union(1845). 1845,德克萨斯加入联邦
    ⑤Obtained California and New Mexico From Mexico by the war with Mexico (1846-1848) 从墨西哥战争1846-4848,得到加利福尼亚和新墨西哥。
    ⑥The Gadsden Purchase (1853) - another 30,000 square miles of Mexican land were added to the territory of the U.S., in return, the U.S. paid 10 million dollars. 1853年的‘加滋登购地’中,又有3万平方英里的墨西哥变成了美国领土,美国付了1千万美圆的补偿。

    7) The American Civil War and its impact on the development of the U.S
    ①The conflict beween the North and the South: In the early 1800’s, black slavery disappeared in the north because of industry development. But it continued to exist in the South. In the South, farming remaind the most important way of making a living and the planter farmed a large area of land. Slave labours seemed best suited for producing these crops. 19世纪早期,由于工业的发展,黑奴在北方消失。但在南方仍然存在。在南方,农耕是最主要的谋生手段,农场主耕种了大片土地。奴隶劳动力似乎最适于这些农作物的生产。
    ②The Compromise of 1850: the North and the South allowed California to be accepted as a free state while ordering the returning of runaway slaves to the masters. 1850年通过了一个折中的方案:同意加利福尼亚为自治州,将逃跑的奴隶归还主人。
    ③Abraham Lincoln (亚伯拉罕. 林肯):Soon after Lincoln became the U.S. President, the War broke out on April 12, 1861. He realized that he could win support for the Union at home and abroad by making the war a just war against slavery. So he issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. Thus England and France stood by the Union’s side. Many black slaves joined the Union Army. 亚伯拉罕. 林肯:当林肯成为美国总统后,1861.4.12爆发战争,他意识到可以把战争变为反奴隶的正义战争,从而获得国内外对联邦的支持。所以他颁布了著名的《解放宣言》。这样英法各国站到了联邦一边,许多黑奴加入了联邦军。
    Lincoln’s speech:“That government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” 民有,民治,民享的政府是不会从地球上消亡的。The Thirteenth Amendment, which banned slavery, was added to the Constitution in December, 1865. 废除奴隶制的第十三修正案于1865年12月写入宪法。

    Rapid Growth of Capitalism after the Civil War 内战后资本主义的迅速发展
    After the war, the U.S. saw great developments in Industry, agriculture, science and technology, and population.
    ①reasons: a stable political environment after the war was over; enough labour supply after black slaves were free; new immigrants; Science and invention played a very important role in accelerating America’s industrial development; the federal goverment put high taxes on foreign imports; the Rich natural resources. 原因:战后稳定的政治环境;黑奴自由,新移民都提供了足够的劳动力;科学和发明在美国的工业发展中起到重要作用;联邦政府对进口商品课以高税,丰富的自然资源。
    ②consequences: Both production and capital became increasingly concentrated. 生产和资本越来越集中。


    Chapter 2 American History II (1900-1945)

    1. Economic growth in the early 20th century
    ①tremendous growth of the American economy (between the end of the civil war and 1900): Steam and electricity replaced human muscle, & steel took the place of iron. Machines and oil were used. People and goods could move by railroads. In 1900, it became the largest producer of coal and steel in the world. 内战结束到1900年间,美国经济取得了巨大发展;蒸汽和电力取代了人力,钢取代了铁。机器和石油得到了应用,客运和货运可以通过铁路进行。煤和铁以巨大产量位居世界之首。
    ②features in the growth of the economy: 1) there emerged a growth of industrial and financial mergers. By 1910, incorporation had become the dominant type; 2) With the development of industry and the extension of railroad network, there was a mushroom growth of cities and urbanization; 3) there was a rapid development of new technology. The automobile and radio also developed. America was on the way of becoming a nation on wheels. 经济发展的特点:1)出现了工业和金融合并发展的势头。到1910年,联合企业已成为主导形式;2)随着工业和铁路网络的扩张,城市如雨后春笋般发展起来(都市化);3)新工业技术的发展迅猛。汽车和无线电也发展起来,美国正在成为一个车轮上的国家。

    2. progressivism and some of the reform efforts.
    Progressivism, also known as the Progressive Movement, appeared in America at the turn of the 20th century. It demanded government regulation (规范) of the economy and social conditions – social area: to improve living conditions of the poor, to ban child labour, work hour limit for women workers, and industrial accident insurance. Political area: to reform state and city governments and economic area; to regulate big businesses. 进步运动出现在20世纪初,是一场要求政府调控经济和社会生活条件的运动—社会领域:改善城市贫民的居住条件,禁止使用童工,政治领域:改革市政府和州政府,经济领域:调控大型企业。
    ①the Muckrakers and Progressive Movement: The Muckrakers, a group of reform-minded journalists, made investigations and exposed various dark sides of society. Progressive Movement was not an organized campaign with clearly defined goals. Rather, it was a number of diverse efforts at political, social, and economic reforms. 搜集并揭发丑闻的人,是一群锐意改革的新闻记者,调查和揭露了社会的阴暗面。进步运动不是一场具有明确目标的有组织的运动,而是政治,社会以及经济改革方面一系列不同形式的努力。

    3. role of the U.S. in WWI
    At the beginning of the war, Wilson said American policy was neutrality, but in fact its partiality pursued a policy of pro-Ally (支持同盟国). American declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917. The Peace Conference, the Paris Conference, began on January 18, 1919. The conference was actually a conference of division of colonies of Germany, Austro-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire and the grabbing of as much as possible from the defeated nations. The result of the Paris Conference was the emergence of the Versailles Treaty System in Europe. 战争初期,威尔逊声明美国中立,但事实上采用了亲同盟国的偏狭政策。美国于1917年4.6对德宣战。1919.1.18,巴黎和会召开,这个会议实质上是瓜分德国,奥匈帝国,奥斯曼帝国殖民地,尽可能掠夺战败国的会议。巴黎和会的结果是欧洲凡尔赛条约体系的出现。

    4. characteristics of the 1920s
    The 1920s in the U.S. has been described by many historians as a period of material success and spiritual frustration or confusion and purposelessness. The war changed the U.S. from a debtor into a creditor. There was further urbanization, new development of technology and mass production. The 1920s in the U.S. has been described as a period of material success and spiritual frustration. More people had cars. The government gave help to industry and business. There existed a highly aggressive and intolerant nationalism. There was the Red Scare in 1919 and 1920. There was the revival of the Ku Klux Klan (三K党反动组织复活) which claimed a membership of 5 million. 20世世纪20年代的美国被很多历史学家描绘成一个物质丰厚而精神崩溃和迷惘的年代。战争将美国从债务国变成债权国。进一步的都市化,技术和大规模生产有了新的发展。更多的人有了车。政府给予工业和商业帮助。产生了一种激进、偏狭的民族主义。一是1919-1920的‘红色恐怖’;三K党的复兴,宣布已有5百万党员。

    5. the Great Depression (1929-1937) and the New Deal 大萧条和新政
    ①no regulation or control over various kinds of investment companies. The banking system lacked stability. Stock market speculation(股票市场投机)and over expansion of credit (借贷过度膨胀). Stock market crashed (1929): America’s stock market crash came on October 24, 1929, called the black Thursday. 没有对各种投资公司调节与控制。银行系统缺乏稳定性。股票市场的投机与信贷过度膨胀。股票崩盘:1929.10.24,被称为黑色星期四。
    ②the gross national product (GNP) shrank (收缩) from $87 billion in 1929 to $41 billion in 1933. The unemployed went up; Misery and personal sufferings were widespread. 国民生产总值从1929年的870亿降到1933年的410亿美元。失业率增加,不幸和痛苦到处可见。

    6. Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal
    ①Roosevelt became the U.S. president in 1932. He had a sure sense of what seemed practical or possible. He was a great communicator, able to talk to people in all walks of life. His “fireside chats” over the radio were listened to by millions of people. 罗斯福于1932年成为美国总统,他能准确辨别什么是现实的或可行的。他是一个伟大的交际者,能够和各界人事谈的来。他通过无线电播出的“炉边谈话”拥有数百万的听众。
    ②the New Deal: Measures of the New Deal include establishment and strengthening of government regulation and control of banking; Federal government management of relief and security system(社会救济保障体系); recovery of industry and agriculture; passage of federal labour laws; improvement of the situation of minorities and members of certain religious groups. These measures, was to “save American democracy”, and help overcome the most serious economic crisis of the capitalist system up to that time. 新政:建立和加强政府对银行的管理和控制;联邦政府对救济进行管理,建立社会救济保障体系;刺激工,农业的复苏;通过劳工法;改善少数民族和某些宗教团体成员的状况。这些措施的目的是“拯救美国的民主”,帮助美国克服了当时资本主义所经历的最严重的经济危机。

    7. America in WW II
    ①The Second World War was the result of struggle between the great powers for control of the world and military expansion of the countries of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and militarist Japan. Isolationism before WW II and neutrality at first. 二战是由大国为争夺世界霸权,以及纳粹德国,法西斯主义的意大利和军国主义的日本进行军事扩张而导致的。美国第二次世界大战前的孤立主义和初期的中立政策。
    ②the Pearl Harbour Incident in December,1941 - spiritual frustration. 1941年12月的珍珠港事件
    ③American wartime objectives and guiding principles for wartime diplomacy 美国的战时目标和战时外交的指导原则
    The objectives were the total destruction of the Axis powers and the establishment of a world order after unconditional victory in accord with American ideals and interests - two guiding principles: the first was to win the war, the second was to establish a postwar political structure in accord with American interest and to prevent the Soviet Union from over-expansion. 战时目标是彻底摧毁轴心国势力,并在取得无条件胜利后建立与美国理想与利益符合的世界秩序。两个指导原则:1是取得战争胜利,2是建立一个符合美国利益的战后政治结构,并防止苏联过度扩张。
    ④Anglo-American Strategy and differences in Europe. 英美在欧洲的战略和分歧
    A Stratergy of Europe: to defeat Germany first; the second issue was the policy towards the Soviet Union. 欧洲战略:1击败德国,2对苏联的政策。
    The differences: the United States was eager to take away from France and Britain their former colonies and let them become independent states. Britain did not like the American policy 美国渴望英、法的殖民地摆脱英、法而成为独立国家。英不同意。
    ⑤American policy towards the Soviet Union 美国对的对苏政策:1)to keep the Soviet Union in the war; 2)to get the Soviet Union into the war against Japan; 3)to influence Soviet policy and to be very watchful about Soviet expansive intention. 1)让苏联继续参战,2)使苏联卷入对日抗战;3)给苏联外交政策一定的影响,同时十分警惕苏联的扩张意图。
    ⑥Potsdam Conference (1945) 波茨坦会议:showed that there were great differences among America, Britain and the Soviet Union.


    Chapter 3 America in Postwar Era (1945-1980s) 二次大战后的美国

    1. Origins of the Cold War 冷战的起源
    ①time: began with the ending of the WW II;
       Causes: caused by conflicts between the U.S. and the S.U. arose basically from their separate concepts of postwar world order;
       different policies: During the Cold War, the U.S. government would support any country which said it was fighting against communism. And the Soviet Union beliveved it should rapidly build up its strength for the final struggle against capitalism.
    时间:二战结束后;原因:美苏之间的冲突基本源于他们对战后世界秩序的不同想法;不同政策:在冷战期间,美国政府支持任何一个表示反对共产主义的国家。苏联相信必须迅速增强自己的实力,同资本主义做最后的抗争。
    ②George Kennan (proposed the containment policy on February 22, 1946) and the containment policy: the containment policy became the offical policy towards the Soveit Union until 1989. 1946年2月22日,美国驻苏联大使乔治。凯南在他的电报中主张对苏联采取遏制政策。此后遏制政策作为美国对苏联的官方政策。

    2. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan 杜鲁门主义和马歇尔计划
    ①the Truman Doctrine: the U.S government should support any country which said it was fighting against commuism. It was put forward by the U.S. President Truman in 1947. 杜鲁门主义:美国政府将会支持任何一个表示反对共产主义的国家。这是美国总统杜鲁门1947年提出的
    ②The Marshall Plan: In order to protect Western Eutope from possible Soviet expansion, the U.S. decided to offer Werstern European countries economic aid. It was annouced by Secretary of State George Marshall on June 5, 1947. 马歇尔计划:为了保护西欧不受苏联扩张影响,美国决定给予西欧国家经济支援,这是由国务卿马歇尔于1947

    3. Effects of McCarthyism (麦卡锡主义1950-1954) on American society:McCarthy used “big lie” tactic to persecute progressive people. He said he had the names of over 200 Communists in the State Department. His lies caused full-scale, anti-Communist hysteria in America and frightened a large number of ordinary Americans. 麦卡锡用弥天大谎这一伎俩迫害进步改革人士。他声称掌握了200共产党人的名单。他的谎言过于极端,反对共产党人的歇斯底里导致美国民众的极度恐慌。

    4. the postwar boom in the U.S.: Since 1945 the U.S. had entered a twenty-five years economic boom. The cornerstones (支柱产业) were the automobile, housing and defence industries. During this period, the economy grew at an average rate of 3.5 percent per year. The nation’s GNP rose from just over $200 billion in 1946 to close to $1 trillion in 1970. Crucial to the postwar economic boom was the baby boom — the upsurge in births and military spending. More than 63 million babies were born between 1946 and 1961 in the U.S. and this increased consumption. 自1945年以来,美国经济进入了长达25年的繁荣期,经济繁荣的基本为汽车,住房和国防工业。这期间,经济以平均每年3.5%增长。国民生产总值从1946的稍高于2千亿美圆增长到1970的近1万亿美元。对战后经济增长至关重要的是生育高峰—出生高峰和军队开支。6350万以上的婴儿在1946-1961年出生。

    5. U.S-China relations (1949-1972)
    ①The Taiwan issue and U.S. support of Chiang Kaishek: the Taiwan problem has been a key problem in U.S–China relations. The U.S. provided Chiang with military aid.
    ②change in U.S policy towards China from Nixon’s visit in 1972
    ③normalization and remaining problems(关系正常化和现存问题):Soon after the estalishment of diplomatic relations with China in 1979, the U.S. Congress adopted the Taiwan Relations Act (台湾关系法) which violated the spirit of the agreement for the establishment of diplomatic relations.

    6. The New Right and their program 新右派及其纲领
    The New Right consists of two groups of people: the firm believers of protestant religious teachings (新教教义) who were concerned with social and moral issues; and the intellectuals who were concerned with political and foreign policy issues. The New Right demanded equal time in school for the teaching of man created by God as opposed to the teaching of evolution (对相反的上帝造人说和进化论实行等学时教育). They opposed abortion  and “affirmative action” (在就业及入学方面优侍黑人及其他少数民族的行动。)


    Chapter 4 The U.S. Economy 美国经济

    1. Factors that contribute to the fast growth of the economy: ①the geographical location of the United States povides very good conditions for the country to grow and become strong. ②the United States has been blessed by being a land rich in mineral resources and fertile farm soil, together with a moderate climate. ③America has been fortunate in having enough people to provide the labour necessary for a constantly expanding economy. ④ the quality of available labour. The United States has a skilful and willing labour force. 经济快速增长的几个因素:1.美国的地理位置为国家的发展壮大提供了良好的条件;2.美国有幸是一块矿产资源丰富、土壤肥沃的陆地,气候温和;3.拥有足够的劳动力以满足不断发展的经济增长;4.这些劳动力的质量。美国拥有技术高和能动性好的劳动力大军。

    2. Characteristics of the U.S. economy: characterised by a high degree of monopoly. 经济特征:已高度垄断为特点。

    3. the importance of foreign trade: the United States supplies a larger share of the imports of all other countries than does any other country in the world. But the U.S. share of the world trade has declined in recent years. ①Currently US exports are about 15% of the world’s total; ②the US imports about 13% of all world imports; ③Canada is the largest single source of goods imported by the U.S., accounting for nearly 30% of the total. Asia provides about 18% of American imports. Thus the economy of these countries is often affected when the U.S. economy is in trouble. 美国进口的商品比世界任何国家都多。但最近几年比例有所下降。1.美国出口量占全世界出口总数的15%;2.美国的进口占13%左右;3.加拿大是最大的供应国,占总数的近30%。亚洲占18%左右。因此,一旦美国经济陷入困境,这些国家也会受到影响。

    4. problems facing the US economy: unemployment, inflation, financial deficit, and trade deficit. 经济存在的问题:失业,通货膨胀,财政赤字和贸易赤字。


    Chapter 5 Political Institution 政治体制

    1. A workable form of government under the Constitution: a federal system of government which has two layers of rule. 两极统治的联邦政府体制

    2. Separation of powers with checks and balances under the Constitution: The Constitution divides the government into three branches: the legislative, the executive and the judicial. Each branch has only part of the powers but not all. The three branches are in balance and they may check against each other. 三权分立和制衡制度:宪法将政府划分为3个部门,立法部门、执法部门和司法部门。每个部门只有部分权利不是全部。三个部门权利平衡并互相限制。

    3. Safeguards for individual liberty under the Constitution: the Bill of Rights. It is the term used for the first ten amendments to the Constitution. It guarantees freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and petition, freedom from unreasonable searches, right to jury trial, right to due process of law and other legal rights. 宪法下的个人自由的保护:人权。这是最早的十个宪法修正案中的总称。他确保了宗教、言论、出版、集会、请愿和免受无理搜查的自由,还确保了接受陪审团审判、享受应有的法律程序和其他合法权利。

    4. Powers of the American president: ①The president is the head of the executive branch(行政部门首脑). ②He is also head of state (元首) elected by the whole nation. ③he has some legislative powers (立法权); ④he is responsible for the relations of the United States with foreign nations; ⑤he signs Bills passed by Congress into law.⑥he appoints fedeal officials; ⑦he has some judicial powers; ⑧commander-in-chief (总司令); ⑨he can serve for no more than 2 terms 总统权利:1.行政部门首脑;2.国家元首;3.立法权;4.负责美国与其他国家的关系;5.签定法案;6.委任政府官员;7.司法权利;8.总司令;9. 任期不超过2届。

    5. Powers of the House of Representatives: the House of Representatives can ①introduce legislation, ②revenue bills and ③bring charges against officials, including the President. 众议院权利:1.立法;2.征税法案; 3.指控官员,包括总统。

    6. Powers of the Senate: the Senate has the power to ①introduce legislation on any subject except revenue bills (除了税收法案). It has the authority to ②confirm or reject presidential appointments (总统任命) of high officials as well as the U.S. foreign treaties. ③Its chairman is the Vice President. 参议院权利:1立法除税收。还有一些特殊权利:2批准或否决总统任命的高级官员及外交条约;3.领导人是副总统。

    7. The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: According to the Constitution, the judicial power of the U.S shall be vested in one Supreme Court. The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: the Supreme Court, 11 court of appeals, 91 district courts, and 3 courts of special jurisdiction. U.S. judges are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.根据宪法规定,美国的司法权属于最高法院,司法体系结构为:最高法院,11个上诉法院,91个地方法院,3个有特殊司法权的法院,美国的法官是由总统任命并由参议院批准的。

    8. The two-party system and the characteristics of the two major parties
    ① the two-party system: the two party system means that the two major political parties – now the Democrats and the Republicans – compete with each other to dominate politics at the federal, state, and local levels. 两党制意味着两个主要的政党—目前为民主党和共和党—支配着联邦、州及地方的政治舞台。
    ② the characteristics of the two major parties: The two major parties are not very different today. They are two coalitions of interests and interest groups (利益集团的联合). There is no strict party discipline (党纪). One does not have to apply or go through necessary formalities to become a member of either party. But there are some differences between them.
    The Democrats traditionally favour government intervention (主张政府干涉经济) while the Republicans stress the role of the market (市场作用) more. On social issue the Democrats support a strong social security system (社会安全保障体制) while the Republicans oppose large governmental social security programs. In spite of these differences, the two parties both believe in individualism, defend capitalism and uphold private ownership of means of production (坚持生产资料私有制). 两个主要政党今天并没有实质区别。他们是利益集团的联合。没有严格的党纪。要想成为某党成员,不需要申请或办理必要的手续。但他们有所不同。民主党主张政府干涉,共和党则强调市场作用。在社会问题上,民主党支持建立强大的社会保障体系,而共和党反对大规模的政府社会保障计划。尽管存在这些区别,两党都信仰个人主义,保护资本主义制度,维护生产资料私有制。


    Chapter 6 Education

    1. Characteristics of American education:
    ① formal education in the US consists of elementary, secondary and higher education.
    ② Elementary and secondary education, which forms public education, is free and compulsory
    ③ public and private schools: Public schools are created, financially supported and governed by states or communities; and private ones by religious groups, or nonreligious private organizations or individuals.
    ④ the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution said education was included among the responsibilities which were “reserved to the states or the people”; this makes it clear that education is a function of the state, not the federal government.
    ⑤ diversity and sameness in educational policy and practice.
    1.正式教育包括初等、中等、高等教育2.构成公共教育的初、中等教育是免费和义务的;3.公立和私立学校:公立学校由州或社区创建、资助和管理,私立由宗教团体、或非宗教性质的个人或组织来创建;4.《宪法第十修正案》把教育包括在‘只属于州和人民’的职责中,这清晰表明教育是州的职能,并非联邦政府的;5.教育政策和教学实践的多样性和类同性

    2. Elementary and secondary educationin in the US
    Elementary schools: in some states the elementary school covers grades 1-8, but in some other states it covers grades 1-5 or 6; so it takes 5, 6 or 8 years to finish the elementary school in the United Stetes. The elementary school curriculum (课程) mainly consists of mastery of the “basics” (基础课),such as reading, writing, and arithmetic or mathematics. 一些州小学包括1-8年级,但另一些是1-5或6年级。所以在美国小学要花5,6或8年完成。小学的课程重要包括‘基本知识’的掌握,比如阅读,写作,和算术或数学。

    Secondary Schools: Secondary schools are also called high schools in the United Stetes, covering grades 9-12,the junior high school 6 or 7-9, and the high school 10-12. High schools are made up of comprehensive, academic, vocational and technical schools with somewhat different tasks. There are 21,000 public secondary schools and a number of private secondary schools in the US. 中学包括9-12年级或初中6或7到9,高中10-12。中学包括不同教学任务的综合性学校,普通文化课学校和职业和技术学校。共有21000所公立中学和一些私立中学。

    3. Different types of colleges and universities:
    ①research universities ②doctoral universities ③master’s comprehensive colleges and universities ④Liberal arts colleges ⑤junior colleges ⑥specialized institutions 学院和大学的区别:1.研究性大学;2.博士学位大学;3.硕士学位综合大学和学院;4.文科学院;5.两年专科学院;6.专科学院

    Famous universities: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia and MIT(Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Stanford, Berkeley.哈佛,耶鲁,普林斯顿,哥伦比亚,麻省理工学院,斯坦福,伯克利。

    4. the admission system in US univerisities: The general standards for admission include successful completion of high school (高中毕业), high school grade point average (GPA) ( 高中年纪平均积分点成绩) and class rank (在班级名次), results from standardized tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SIA) (学生技能测试) and American College Testing Program’s (美国大学考试计划) examination. But some universities practise open admission (敞开招生): they admit all high school graduates and all residents of the state (州内所有居民) 。大学的入学体系:入学的普遍标准包括中学的顺利毕业,GPA,班级名次,标准化测验的成绩就像SAT和ACTP。但是一些大学也实行开放式入学:他们允许所有中学毕业生或所有本州的所有居民。

    5. The role of the community college: ①they prepare students for transferring to a BA program at a four-year institution. ②they provide vocational training; ③they give remedial instruction (补习课) to students. ④they offer recreational, cultural activities for adults. ⑤they absorb students in a four-year program who are not qualified into a lower-status vocational program. 社会学院的作用:1.为学生攻读4年制院校学士学位做准备;2.提供职业培训;3.补习指导;4.为成人提供文化娱乐活动;5.将不适应4年制学习的学生吸收到较低一级的职业培训中。

    6. Adult education - some colleges and universities offer “continuing education” program of associate degrees, graduate studies or professional development. Under such system, a worker may continue his study even on a part-time basis. 一些学院和大学提供继续教育,授予准学士学位,研究生课程或专业培训。在这样的体制下,工人可以在业余时间继续其学业。

    7. Education reform in the 1980s and early 1990s 教育改革
    ① “a Nation At Risk ” report in 1983 put forward five proposals (P.328) to improve American education; the education reforms had two focuses: the raising of the standards of teaching and learning; the restructuring of the schools. 1983年,一篇名为〈处于危机中的国家〉的报道,提出了5条建议改善美国的教育;教育改革有两个重点:提高教学水平,调整学校结构。
    ② in 1991, President Bush issued his plan “America 2000: An Education Strategy”. It set six goals (P.330) and put forward a series of proposals to help carry out some of the goals. 1991年,布什总统公布了他的〈2000年的美国:一项教育策略〉计划。确定了6个目标和有效达到这一目标的一系列建议。


    Chapter 7 Literature, Architecture and Music 文学,建筑和音乐

    1. Major American Writers and their works
    ① Bejamin Franklin (1706-1790) 本杰明.富兰克林: the only writer in the colonial period. Works: Poor Richard’S Almanac, which is an annual collection of proverbs. 殖民地时期的作家。作品:《穷理查年鉴》,一本年度谚语集。
    ② Washington Irving (1803-1882) 华盛顿 欧文: A History of New York 纽约外史; The Sketch Book 最著名的作品为《见闻札记》,his most famous book, contians “Rip Van Winkle”《瑞普.凡.温克尔》and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”《睡谷的传说》
    ③ Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) 爱默生:the leader of the movement of transcendentalism. 超验 主义运动的领导者 Works: Nature(论自然), Self-reliance(论自助), Representative Men(代表人物), English Traits and Poems (英国人的性格和诗).
    ④ Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) 霍桑:The Scarlet Letter 红字
    ⑤ Mark Twain(1835-1910): The Celebrated Jumping Frog (《著名的跳蛙》,成名之作) ;The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (a boy book) 汤姆.索亚历险记; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (his master work),则是他最杰出著作; A Tramp Abroad浪迹海外, Life on the Mississippi 密西西比河上, The Gilded Age 镀金时代 and Innocents Abroad 异乡奇遇。
    ⑥ Walt Whitman (1819-1892) 沃尔特. 惠特曼: the first to explore fully the possibilities of free verse(探索自由诗体可能性的第一人), Leaves of Grass (his masterpiece) 草叶集,
    ⑦ Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) : Death was one of the great themes of her work 死亡是她作品的重要主题之一
    ⑦ Theordor Dreiser (1871-1945): the representative of naturalists whose works reported truthfully and objectively the life in the slums.自然主义代表,在他们的作品里对贫民窟的生活进行了真实而客观的报道。 Works: Trilogy of Desire (欲望三部曲); An American Tragedy (美国的悲剧—被公认为最佳作品,which is considered to be his best)
    ⑧ T.S Eliot (1888-1965), won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1946
    ⑨ Emest hemingway (1899-1967) 海明威; was awarded the Nobel Prize 诺贝尔文学奖 for literature in 1954. A Farewell to Arms永别了,武器; For Whom the Bell Tolls (the two about the first and second world war); 丧钟为谁而鸣(关于一、二战的2篇小说)Old Man and the Sea (his representative book) 老人与海(代表作)

    2. Harlem Renaissance (哈莱姆复兴) and black writing in American literature: In the 1920s, Black Litrature developed into an upsurge which has come to be known as the Harlem Renaissace. 20世纪20年代,黑人文学蓬勃发展,后来被称为‘哈莱姆复兴’。Langston Hughes (1899-1967) 休斯 (masterpiece: The Weary Blues 困倦的BLUES) and Richard Wright (1908-1960) 赖特(masterpiece: Native Son土生子)were the major figures of those Black writers.


    Chapter 8 Holidays and Festivals:

    1. New year’s Day - celebration in the US: the celebration of this holiday begins the night before New Year’s Eve. Most people like to hold big parties at private homes or go to restaurants or clubs; Mummers Parade 化装游行(one of the most popular New Year’s activities held in Philadelphia on the first day); the Rose Tournament 玖瑰竞赛(held in Pasadena, California)庆祝从前一天晚上—新年前夜就开始了。大多数人喜欢在家里开晚会或去饭店、俱乐部;在费城举行的化装游行是新年活动中最受欢迎的活动之一;玖瑰竞赛在加利福尼亚的怕萨迪纳举行。

    2. Valentine’s Day (Feb. 14):a day for lovers, and one of the loveliest holidays in the US

    3. Easter in the US:the second of the two most important religious holidays for Christians. It is on the first Sunday after the full moon that occurs on or after March 21, and it is for celebrating the rising of Jesus Christ from his tomb. Symbols for Easter: egg and hare (rabbit or bunny) 是基督教徒的两大主要宗教节日的第二个。是3.21满月或其后的第一个星期日,为了庆祝基督耶稣从坟墓中复活。象征物:鸡蛋和兔子。

    4. Independence Day (July 4): it is for celebrating the Declaration of Independence adopted on July 4,1776 美国独立纪念日7月4日:这是为庆祝1776.7.4独立宣言批准。

    5. Halloween (October 31) 万圣节10.31: a night-time children’s holiday; it is a time for frightening costumes, mask parties, games and tricks — all for fun. 夜晚进行的孩子们的节日。这时会有恐怖的穿戴、面具、晚会、游戏和恶作剧—一切为了娱乐。

    6. Thanksgiving Day (Fourth Thursday of November) 感恩节11月第4个星期4: a typical American holiday; turkey, roast pumpkin and so on.

    7. Chrismas (December 25): which celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ, is the biggest and best-loved holiday in the US
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